Profit and Loss Statement

Lots of firms report both income and revenue. These two concepts are used to describe various number accumulations. Revenue, which is determined by multiplying the average sales price by the quantity of units sold, is the money made from normal business operations. ‍

Profit and Loss Statement

What is Revenue?

Revenue, which is determined by multiplying the average sales price by the quantity of units sold, is the money made from normal business operations.

Revenue is the top line, also known as gross income, figure that is used to calculate net income. To calculate net income costs must be subtracted from revenue.

Revenue: What Can It Tell You?

Revenue is the money that a company generates via its business operations. Depending on the accounting technique used, there are various ways to compute revenue.

Since it appears first on an income statement for a company, revenue is referred to as the top line. Revenues less expenses equals net income. Net income is also referred to as the bottom line. When revenues are more than expenses, a profit is made.

A company increases revenues and/or lowers expenses to improve profit and, consequently, earnings per share (EPS) for its shareholders. Investors frequently evaluate the health of a company's operation independently based on its revenue and net income. Because of cost-cutting, net income can increase even when revenues are constant.

A situation like this is not encouraging for the long-term development of a company. Two quantities that get a lot of attention when public firms announce their quarterly earnings are revenues and EPS. A company's sales and earnings per share performance can frequently affect a stock's price.

Revenue vs Income

Lots of firms report both income and revenue. These two concepts are used to describe various number accumulations.

Gross proceeds are frequently referred to as revenue in business. Only the income component of an entity's operations is measured in this way. All of the money that a company has made is referred to as revenue.

Typically, income includes additional aspects of a firm. For instance, net income or incorporate costs like cost of goods sold, operational costs, taxes, and interest expenditures. Whereas income includes other parts of a firm that reports the net proceeds, revenue is a gross quantity that is only concerned with the collecting of proceeds.

Revenue Types

The revenue of a firm may be classified into the several departments that create it. For instance, a food company might divide earnings among various brand types. It can also decide to divide revenue into other food categories.

A company could also categorize revenue into tangible and intangible product types. To give an example, a technology company’s products might include mobile phones, computers, etc. whereas it can also include software, downloading tools, etc.

Sales from a company's primary business are considered operational revenue, whereas non-operating money comes from additional sources. One-time occurrences or gains can be used to describe these non-operating revenue streams because they are frequently erratic or nonrecurring. Non-operating revenue includes, for instance, the revenues from the sale of an asset, an unexpected profit from investments, or monetary settlements from legal proceedings.

Additional Concepts

Non-profit Revenue

Gross receipts are the nonprofit's revenue. Donations from individuals, foundations, and businesses, grants from governments, investments, and/or membership fees are some of its fundamental elements. Fundraising activities and uninvited donations are two ways nonprofits can get income.

Real Estate Revenue

Revenue in the context of real estate investments indicates the income produced by a property, such as rent, parking charges, or rent. Net operational income (NOI) is the amount that results when operating costs incurred to maintain the property are removed from property income.

Although vacant real estate technically doesn't generate any operating income, the owner may need to report gains due to changes in fair market value when publicly disclosing their financial information.

Revenue Meaning in Business World

The money a business makes comes mostly from the selling of its goods or services to clients and is known as revenue. When, how, and why a corporation recognizes revenue are all governed by certain accounting standards.

For instance, a client may give money to a business. However, a business might not be allowed to record revenue until they've fulfilled their end of the bargain.

Accrued and Deferred Revenue

Accrued income is the money a business receives for providing goods or services but has not yet received payment from the client. Revenue is reported in accrual accounting at the time a sales transaction occurs, even though it may not always reflect cash on hand.

The difference between deferred revenue and accrued revenue is that deferred revenue includes payments made in advance by customers for goods or services that have not yet been provided.

If a business receives a prepayment for its products, it will recognize the revenue as unearned but won't show it on its income statement until the period in which the products were delivered.

When we are talking about revenue, there are some important concepts that needs to be mentioned:


Annual Recurring Revenue, a Subscription Economy metric, displays the revenue that is generated annually during the course of a subscription (or contract). ARR is, more particularly, the value of the term subscriptions for a company's recurring revenue adjusted for a single calendar year.

ARR is a reliable indicator of a subscription business's health. ARR provides measurement of business development and forecasting of future growth because it represents the amount of revenue that a company anticipates repeating.


It's also a helpful indicator for evaluating the momentum of things like new sales, renewals, and upgrades, as well as the momentum lost to things like downgrades and lost clients.

ARR is used for:

Define the state of the company: ARR evaluates the effectiveness of a company in particular areas, demonstrating where revenue is increasing or decreasing and why.

Knowing your ARR can help you enhance your bottom line and help you run your business more efficiently by enabling you to make better decisions on employee evaluation, compensation, operational planning, and finance.

Revenue increase: Monitoring relationship changes gives businesses information into the needs and wants of their consumers, which in turn encourages cross-selling and up-selling, both of which increase revenue.

Revenue forecast: Forecasting revenue from possible customers is made easier by planning the length and price of various subscriptions. Businesses can manage spending more precisely and keep their cash reserves by tracking the value of renewals and the cost of lost customers.

Keep top talent: Monitoring ARR helps a company to concentrate on certain sales areas to identify what is effective and what needs to change. Paying employees in accordance with their productive job performance reduces turnover and lowers the cost of onboarding new employees.
Bring in investors: Investors prefer the subscription economy over one-time sales because of the legally committed revenue, predictable sales models, and precise revenue forecasts. Owners of subscription businesses with ARR may sell consistently and systematically, which allows them to grow.


The predicted total revenue that your company generates from all of the active subscriptions in a given month is known as monthly recurring revenue (MRR). It does not include one-time fees, only recurring expenses from discounts, coupons, and add-ons.

Using MRR, you can evaluate the company's current financial situation and forecast its future earnings based on active subscribers.

MRR is just as significant to each sales representative as it is to management, despite the fact that it might appear to be a big picture metric with broad implications for the company.

MRR is used for:

Tracking performance: To evaluate a subscription business’ growth, a month may be considered a reasonable. time interval. You shouldn't wait a week or a year to find out how the company is doing. Additionally, unlike one-time sales, where payment is received in full at the time of purchase, the revenue for a specific consumer under the subscription model comes in small amounts each month.

In order to create a lasting business, you must evaluate your company's performance accordingly and make sure that your monthly cash flow is consistent. MRR is helpful in this situation. It monitors month-over-month trends and offers short-term financial performance insights, which assist you in assessing your progress toward the annual revenue quota.

Revenue forecast: MRR is thought to be crucial for developing precise sales estimates and long- and short-term corporate growth plans. You may predict the revenue for the following month by reviewing your monthly financial performance. You can also determine what adjustments to your sales strategy are necessary to boost income.

Budgeting: MRR forecasts the monthly revenue coming into the company. You can accurately estimate the resources you will have available to reinvest in the firm by comparing this revenue to the costs of the company. This is how MRR aids in your decision-making and gives you the assurance to budget for business growth. In addition to this, MRR estimates assist you in determining where you may make savings and where your spending needs to be increased.


EBIT, or earnings before interest and taxes, is a measure of how profitable a business is. Revenue less expenses, without taxes and interest, is EBIT. Operating earnings, operating profit, and profit before interest and taxes are other names for EBIT.

EBIT is a measure of an organization's operating profit and is often used interchangeably with operating profit. EBIT ignores factors like the taxes and capital structure in favor of concentrating exclusively on a company's capacity to create earnings from operations. Because it helps to determine a company's capacity to produce enough earnings to be profitable, pay off debt, and fund continuous operations, EBIT is a particularly helpful indicator.

To analyze your revenue better, reach out to finsmart!
Finsmart helps you to get a better understanding of your financials and to make data-focused strategic decisions.

What is An Expense?

Expense means the obligation you have to bear to have a product or service that you do not have, and the assets you will give in return. It can also mean that you have to pay money to buy any product or service that you do not have. An example of expense is paying to purchase a product.

Likewise, paying to provide yourself with a temporary situation, such as a service, is an expense.
Expenses are divided into many different categories according to the area where the expense is incurred, the continuity of payment of the expense, and the types of expenses.

What are The Expenses of a Company?

Company expenses cover many types of costs, such as production costs, sales costs, general and administrative costs, and other expenses that are not related to the operation of the company.

All company expenditures are divided into two main subheadings: operating expenditures and non-operating expenditures.
As a second classification, company expenses are divided into two different groups: fixed cost and variable cost.

Operating Cost and Non-operating Cost

Operating Costs

Operating costs are the costs that arise as a result of a company's basic activities and administrative continuity, which can be considered necessary for operational continuity. These expenses cover a wide range of expenses, from production and sales chain costs to administrative costs. As long as the company continues to operate, operating costs will continue to exist.

Operational costs do not include capital expenditures such as the acquisition of new facilities or buildings, company expansion, machinery, or equipment.

Operating costs are divided into two main headings: cost of goods sold (COGS) and general and administrative costs (g&a).

What does COGS mean?

The cost of goods sold is the costs that are directly related to the production of the product to be produced, including the raw material fee required for the product to be sold, the procurement of the raw material, and the payments required for the production of the product, such as the labor to be spent during the production of the product.

COGS is included in operating costs because it directly concerns the core activity.

While COGS is included in the income and expense statements, it includes only the cost of products that have generated income that is sold. The costs of products not yet purchased by the customer are not included in the COGS.

Companies that do not sell any products but are based only on service do not have a cost of goods sold. COGS includes costs that must be paid in product production, such as raw materials, procurement, and labor costs.

By simple calculation, an increase in COGS will decrease net income, while a decrease in COGS will increase net income and profitability.

However, although the reduction of COGS brings profitability in the short term, it may cause a decrease in the total profit by causing results such as a decrease in the quality of the product or a decrease in production by reducing the workforce in the long run.

What does G&A mean?

G&A, standing for general and administrative expenses are the expenses that are not included in the costs, such as raw materials, labor, and raw materials spent directly in the production phase of the product, but include the general and administrative expenses that must be made for the operation of the company.

There is no general judgment about the costs involved in g&a costs. In other words, the variety of costs included in g&a costs varies according to the operation of the companies, the sectors in which they provide services or products, and their purposes. In short, g&a covers almost all costs not included in COGS.

The main costs included in most companies' g&a expenses are:

Personnel Salary and Mandatory Personnel Expenses

Paying the salaries of employees who are involved in management and other areas that are outside of direct production is one of the biggest expenses within the scope of g&a.

Apart from the salary of the personnel, the expenses such as meal expenses that must be provided during the working period and transportation costs for the personnel, company vehicles provided to the managers and employees, and travel expenses are also included in the g&a.

In addition to permanent personnel, external personnel who will work for a short period, lawyer fees to be kept in possible judicial cases, and financial advisor and fractional CFO expenses agreed for accounting are also included in the scope of g&a.


Customer Acquisition Cost (CAC) is the marketing expense you incur to acquire one new customer. It shows the marketing costs such as advertising, campaigns, and communication spent to acquire a customer and how much budget is required to acquire new customers.
CAC can also be defined as the cost of the marketing channels you use and the cost of the advertisements you make divided by the number of customers you get through these marketing channels and advertisements.
CAC is one of the most variable expenses among a company's g&a expenses. CAC changes according to the necessity of using the product or service offered by the company, the segment it appeals to, its compatibility with technology, and the difficulty of gaining customers.
A low CAC indicates that a company's marketing tactics are successful, while a high CAC indicates that the company's marketing policy is low and needs to be changed.
CAC enables the company to act more consciously about marketing as it can be analyzed separately for all marketing channels.


Taxes such as stamp tax and employee related taxes that companies are obliged to pay to the government are also included in general and admin whereas corporate taxes are classified seperately below EBIT.

Office Operation and Billing Expenses

In-office expenses such as electricity, water, heating, etc. spent during the operation of the office are also included in the scope of g&a.

Insurance Expenses

Many types of insurance that companies must provide, such as employee compensation insurance, property insurance, and product liability insurance, are also included in g&a.

Non-operating Costs

Non-operation costs are expenses that are not directly related to the operation and continuity of the company, other than basic and compulsory expenses. These costs are mostly those that do not relate to the operations of the company, such as outside investments, changes in foreign exchange rates related to the economy of the business, and interest transactions.

To categorize your costs easily, reach out to finsmart!
Finsmart helps you to get a better understanding of your financials and to make data-focused strategic decisions.

Fixed Cost and Variable Cost

The total cost of a company consists of the sum of fixed costs and variable costs. Fixed costs are generally related to g&a and costs other than production, while variable costs are costs that are directly related to production.

Fixed Cost

Fixed costs are the costs that do not change with the cost of the product produced by the company, the sales amount, and the increase or decrease in the income obtained. Fixed costs are paid independently of the factors in the efficiency or production of the company, and remain constant until a certain stage.

Fixed costs usually cover g&a expenses. For example, rent is a fixed cost because the area where the company is located is fixed and does not change according to the company's production or earnings. As another example, office operating and billing expenses are fixed costs.

Since fixed costs are generally constant, except for the growth of the company and mandatory changes, the fixed cost per unit increases when the number of products produced or the number of services provided decreases, and the fixed cost per unit decreases when the number of products produced or the number of services provided increases. This is called “the scale principle,” which is the rule of cost reduction as production increases.

Fixed costs do not always remain constant. Fixed costs are usually calculated before the establishment of the company or when it is newly established, but they are reanalyzed at certain long-term intervals and increased or decreased as necessary.

For example, when the company reaches a certain production capacity and plans to produce more, it can set up a new production site, increasing fixed costs. Or, the company can reduce office costs by reducing office hours and focusing on remote working.

Variable Cost

Variable costs are expenses that vary depending on the number of products produced by the company or the number of services offered. Unlike fixed costs, variable costs increase in direct proportion to production as production increases and decrease as production decreases.

Variable costs are usually the costs involved in the production of the product or the provision of the service. The amount of raw material per product and the amount of fee paid to the raw material according to the number of products are variable costs. For example, when a company decides to increase the amount of product it will produce, its variable cost will increase as it will necessarily increase the amount of raw materials to be purchased. Likewise, the increase in the price paid for the energy consumed with the increase in the number of products produced is also examined under variable cost.

Variable costs can also change with an external effect: Changes in the regional economy, such as the price of raw materials, changes in billing and the salaries of the personnel involved in direct production, and the price change of the fuel used in transportation are also influential.

To better track your variable costs, reach out to finsmart!
Finsmart helps you to get a better understanding of your financials and to make data-focused strategic decisions.

What is Profit?

Gross Profit

Profit is the term used to describe the financial gain generated when the revenue from a business activity exceeds the expenses, costs, and taxes related to maintaining that activity. Any profits made are handed to the company's owners, who can decide whether to keep the money for themselves, pay dividends to shareholders, or reinvest it in the firm.

How to calculate profit?
Profit Formula = Total Revenue - Total Expenses

Revenue vs. Profit

Revenue is the entire amount of money made through the sale of products or services related to a business's core operations. The amount of money that is left over after deducting all costs, obligations, new sources of income, and operating costs is known as profit, which is also known as net profit or the bottom line. Note that a business could be making money while also suffering a net loss.

Although both are important, profit provides a clearer picture of a company's financial standing. This is due to the fact that a company's liabilities and other costs are already taken into account while calculating its profit.

Profit: What Can It Tell You?

Profit is the money that a company keeps after all costs have been subtracted. The main objective of every business is to make money. As a result, a business's success is measured by its profitability in all its forms.

While some analysts are more interested in top-line profitability, others are more interested in profitability before taxes and other expenses. However, some others are only considering profitability once all costs have been covered.

Gross profit, operating profit, and net profit are the three primary types of profit, and all three can be found on the income statement. Each profit type provides analysts with more details about a company's performance, particularly when it is contrasted with that of its rivals and time periods.

What is Gross Profit?

Gross profit is the profit a business makes after subtracting costs for producing, distributing, and selling its goods or services. A company's income statement will show gross profit, which is calculated by subtracting the cost of goods sold (COGS) from revenue. Sales profit or gross income are synonyms for gross profit.

How to calculate gross profit?
Gross Profit Formula = Total Revenue - COGS (Cost of Goods Sold)

Gross Profit: What Can It Tell You?

Gross profit measures how well a business uses its work force and resources to produce goods and services. The metric primarily considers variable costs, or expenses that change according to the volume of output, such as:

  • Materials
  • Direct labor
  • Commissions for sales staff
  • Credit card fees on customer purchases
  • Equipment
  • Utilities for the production site
  • Shipping

Gross profit does not include fixed costs. Rent, advertising, insurance, wages for those not directly involved in the manufacturing, and office supplies are some examples of fixed costs.

However, it should be emphasized that under absorption costing, which is necessary for external reporting in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, a portion of the fixed cost is assigned to each unit of production (GAAP).

A company's gross profit can vary depending on whether it uses absorption costing or variable costing. Absorption costing is required for external reporting while variable costing is not permitted for external reporting but is useful for internal reporting.

The gross profit margin, a different statistic, can be computed using gross profit. This measure is helpful for tracking changes in a company's production efficiency. It might be inaccurate to simply compare gross profits since gross earnings can increase while gross margins decline, which is a dangerous pattern for the firm.

Gross Profit: Analyzing It

There are a few reasons why a business would want to analyze gross profit rather than net profit. Gross profit reflects the performance of the good or service being sold. A corporation can focus strategically on how its products are functioning by removing the distraction of administrative or operating costs.

Additionally, gross profit is often simpler to analyze than other aspects of a firm. Costs like utilities, insurance, rent, or supplies are unavoidable throughout business operations and mostly uncontrollable in terms of the expenses incurred.

What is Operating Profit?

An organization's operating profit is its entire earnings from its core business operations for a specific time period, before deducting interest and taxes. Additionally, it does not include any gains from ancillary investments, such as earnings from other companies in which the corporation owns a stake. When expenses exceed core business income, an operational loss occurs.

How to calculate operating profit?
Operating Profit Formula = Total Revenue - COGS - Operating Costs - Depreciation & Amortization

Operating Profit: What Can It Tell You?

Operating profit eliminates all extraneous variables from the calculation, making it a very accurate measure of a company's health. Operational profit accounts for asset-related depreciation and amortization—accounting techniques that arise from a firm's operations—because it includes all costs required to keep the business operating.

Operating profit is often mistakenly referred to as EBIT (earnings before interest and tax) since it contains non-operating income, which is not a part of operating profit. In the absence of non-operating income, a company's operating profit will be equal to EBIT.

EBIT assesses the revenue a business makes from its activities. EBIT focuses on a company's capacity to generate earnings from operations by ignoring variables such as the tax burden and capital structure. EBIT is a particularly helpful indicator of a company's capacity to generate enough earnings to be profitable, reduce debt, and fund continuous operations.

Operating Profit: Analyzing It

Due to the effects of taxes and interest payments on a company's net profit, companies may choose to report operating profit figures instead of net profit figures. The operating profit may reflect a company's financial status more favorably than the net profit does if that company has a particularly high debt load.

Positive operating profit may indicate the general health of a company, but it does not ensure continued success. As an illustration, a business with a large debt load can report a positive operating profit while while reporting net losses. Large but extraneous costs are also not reported, which could lead to the appearance that a business with a negative net profit actually has a positive operating profit.

What is Net Profit?

Net profit, often known as net income, is determined as total revenue minus cost of goods sold, general and administration (G&A) costs, operating costs, depreciation, interest, taxes, and other costs. Investors can use this figure to determine how much a company's revenue exceeds its total costs. This figure is a measure of a company's profitability and can be found on the income statement.

How to calculate net profit?
Net Profit Formula = Total Revenue - Total Costs

To analyze your operating profit better, reach out to finsmart!
Finsmart helps you to get a better understanding of your financials and to make data-focused strategic decisions.

Net Profit: What Can It Tell You?

Businesses calculate their earnings per share using net profit. Since it appears at the bottom of the income statement, net profit is frequently referred to as the bottom line by business analysts. In the UK, analysts refer to net profit as profit attributable to shareholders.

Gross Profit vs. Net Income (Net Profit)

Gross profit and net income are two essential business profitability measures. After production costs are deducted from revenue, what is left over is known as the gross profit. Investors might use gross profit to measure how much money a business makes from the production and sales of its products and services.

Net income is the remaining profit after all costs and expenses have been deducted from revenue. Investors can assess a company's overall profitability, which shows how well it has been managed, by looking at its net income or net profit.

Investors can assess whether a firm is making a profit and, if not, where the company is losing money by understanding the distinctions between gross profit and net income.

To analyze your profit better, reach out to finsmart!
Finsmart helps you to get a better understanding of your financials and to make data-focused strategic decisions.

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