TTM (Trailing Twelve Months)

Trailing Twelve Months (TTM) is a financial statistic that is used to determine a company's performance over the previous twelve months. From various authorities, sometimes it can be referred to as the Last Twelve Months (LTM) or Rolling Twelve Months (RTM) in financial contexts.

TTM (Trailing Twelve Months)

TTM Meaning and Importance

The meaning of TTM can be described as Trailing Twelve Months, which is the financial situation of the company for the last twelve months by covering different metrics, statements, and relevant input data. TTM is a crucial financial indicator for both existing firms and new ones such as startups. It makes it possible for investors and business owners to monitor a company's overall financial health, growth, and profitability. Investors can more accurately assess a company's performance over time and make wiser investment decisions by looking at its TTM data. Additionally, business leaders can use TTM data to assist their budgeting, expansion, and future investment decisions.

From a variety of perspectives, but particularly from a financial one, Trailing Twelve Months (TTM) or Last Twelve Months (LTM) is a crucial statistic. In order to assess a company's success, it is a widely used indicator that is thought to be more accurate than quarterly or annual financial statements. In addition to this reason, different goals can be defined as the intentions behind the usage of LTM.

TTM data, in the first place, offers a clearer view of a company's financial performance over a longer time span. When attempting to spot trends or patterns in the company's revenue or earnings, this can be helpful. TTM or RTM (Rolling Twelve Months) aids in minimizing the effects of seasonal variations and any sharp peaks or valleys in financial performance that could happen within a single quarter. Investors and analysts can learn more about the company's overall financial trajectory and its performance over the previous year by looking at this LTM data.

Secondly, TTM data might be helpful when attempting to contrast the financial performance of a company with that of its competitors. When comparing two distinct companies, investors and analysts can be sure they are comparing apples to apples by using TTM since it is an identical comparison of two companies’ same metric that includes the same period of time. This is also due to the fact that TTM’s data, regardless of when the fiscal year begins or ends, considers the four most recent quarters. Therefore, it becomes possible to compare financial parameters like sales growth, earnings per share (EPS), and profit margins in a more precise and insightful manner.

Moreover, the future financial success of a corporation can be predicted using TTM data. Investors and analysts can anticipate the company's future earnings, revenue, and profitability by examining trends in TTM data. When making investment decisions or attempting to determine the stock value of a company, this might be beneficial because it enables investors or other people interested in the company to assume a picture of the future financial situation.

Lastly, TTM data can be used to pinpoint business improvement opportunities. Business leaders can identify and decide the areas where their organization has performed poorly over the past year by studying their TTM measure. This may involve subpar goods, ineffective business practices, or significant debt. With this knowledge, business owners are more equipped to handle these problems and enhance the company's financial performance going forward. As it can be observed from these standpoints, using the trailing twelve months technique is a key financial metric for anyone wishing to evaluate the financial success of an organization.

How to calculate TTM?

The financial information for the previous four quarters, starting from the present date and going back twelve months, must be considered for calculating the trailing twelve months (TTM). The execution of this process can be categorized by several steps which form a favorable guide.

The first step begins with the determination of the current date. Specifically deciding what is the base point which will be used to go back from there is important to arrange the trailing twelve-month period. After this identification of the present-day, finding the most recent four quarters that finished before the current date is the next stage since the TTM calculation will require the financial data of that period.

Thirdly, obtaining relevant financial data for each of these four quarters is essential. This normally consists of revenue, profitability, and any other financial measures crucial for assessing the performance of the organization. Furthermore, the accuracy and relevancy of the data to the timing period and to the measures that are demanded are other key points of organizing an appropriate TTM because false and irrelevant data gathering may lead to misleading results and a wrong TTM calculation.

The following stage is to enter the data for the previous four quarters after the financial information has been acquired. It is again important to avoid missing or erroneous data entry in order not to have a miscalculated output. Finally, the data are annualized as the last step in the TTM calculation. The total revenue (or other financial statistics) from the previous four quarters is multiplied by four to get this.

This presupposes that over the course of a full year, the company's financial performance will be largely constant. As a result, a more accurate and meaningful depiction of a company's yearly financial performance is provided by the TTM calculation and its step of finding the latest four quarters' worth of financial data, adding it up, then multiplying it by four to make it annual.

Since such a technical explanation may result in confusion, an example of TTM calculation can be helpful to carefully analyze and simplify the process. In this example, let’s assume that the current date is 11 April 2022. In this case, the last four quarters would be Q1 2022 (January 1, 2022 - March 31, 2022), Q4 2021 (October 1, 2021 - December 31, 2021), Q3 2021 (July 1, 2021 - September 30, 2021), and Q2 2021 (April 1, 2021 - June 30, 2021). After the identification of timing, the data of these specific time periods can be obtained and added up to find a total value.

For instance, the sum of the previous four quarters' revenues would be $36 million if Q1 2022's revenue is $13 million, Q4 2021's is $7 million, Q3 2021's is $6 million, and Q2 2021's is $10 million. Lastly, during the previous twelve months of this example, the annualized revenue would be $144 million ($36 million x 4).

To sum up, it can be clearly seen that despite the significant benefits of the calculation of a company’s TTM, it is relatively easy and requires less time than most other financial measures and statistics. However, it is paramount to give adequate attention to the gathering and entering of data step to prevent any false consequence.

How TTM Can Assist Companies in Making Knowledgeable Financial Choices?

TTM can help businesses in a variety of ways to make wise financial decisions. Firstly, it can assist businesses in assessing their revenue growth over the previous twelve months. Companies may see if their revenue is rising, falling, or staying the same by looking at LTM revenue statistics. Making smart judgments about pricing, marketing, and other business endeavors is possible with the help of this information. For instance, a business may need to think about cutting costs or stepping up marketing efforts to increase sales if revenue is dropping.

TTM can also offer important insights into a company's profitability in addition to sales growth. Companies can assess whether they are making enough money to fund operations and invest in expansion prospects by looking at TTM profitability statistics. Making judgments about pricing, cost management, and investment objectives can be based on this information provided by TTM calculation. For instance, if profitability is dropping for the firm, a business may need to think about cutting costs or raising pricing to boost margins.

Additionally, companies can spot any short-term swings or trends by looking at TTM data that might not be clear from quarterly or annual financial statements such as the balance sheet, income statement, or cash flow statement. Making decisions concerning budgeting, cash flow management, and debt management can be done so using this information. For instance, if TTM data reveals that a business is suffering from a transient cash flow shortfall, it may need to change its expenditure plans or look at short-term financing solutions to close the gap.

Ultimately, a simple TTM formulation can establish a benchmark to compare the performance of the company to that of its counterparts in the industry. Companies can assess where they stand and pinpoint opportunities for improvement by comparing TTM data to industry averages or competitors' performance. Making strategic decisions about investment priorities, marketing tactics, and other business operations can be done using this critical information. Thus, a company may need to change its marketing tactics or increase its investment in new product development if TTM data reveals that its revenue growth is falling short of that of its competitors.  

TTM vs Other Metrics

Although TTM is a vital and basic measure that helps to see a proper financial image of the firm, there are other business metrics aiming for similar targets with some minor differences such as trailing six months (TSM), current year-to-date (YTD), and forward twelve months (FTM).

Similar to TTM, trailing six months (TSM) offers a rolling window of performance with the aid of financial data. TTM, on the other hand, includes data from the complete prior twelve-month period, whereas TSM only includes data from the most recent six-month period. For this reason, TTM offers a more thorough assessment of a company's financial performance than TSM does, which means that TSM offers a more condensed image. TTM offers a more accurate and thorough picture of a company's financial performance while TSM may be valuable for examining short-term trends or addressing urgent difficulties.

Another financial metric that resembles TTM is the current year-to-date (YTD). YTD measures an organization's progress from the start of the current fiscal year to the present. Similar to TTM, YTD offers a current view of a business's financial performance related to the most recent period. However, the performance of the prior fiscal year is not taken into account by YTD, so it might not give a complete view of a company's financial trend. Because TTM incorporates information from the prior fiscal year, it enables a more thorough examination of a company's financial development over time; therefore, its benefits may outweigh the YTD’s advantages.

Similar to the previously mentioned statistics, FTM (Forward Twelve Months) is a financial statistic that forecasts a company's performance over the next 12 months and helps to make an estimate of future performance. To reach this prediction of a company's financial performance over the following 12 months, FTM uses forecasts and projections. Nonetheless, FTM is highly uncertain and may not accurately reflect a company's real performance, even if it can be beneficial for predicting future trends and planning for growth prospects whereas TTM offers a historical snapshot of a company's performance that may be utilized to make more precise estimations and forecasts.

In conclusion, even though TSM, YTD, and FTM are a few financial metrics that are comparable to TTM in several ways, each metric has strengths and weaknesses of its own. As can be observed from the comparison analysis between TTM and other metrics, YTD offers a current glimpse of the current fiscal year, and TSM offers a more condensed snapshot of a company's performance over the previous six months. Also, FTM offers a forecast of a company's future performance, although it is very speculative. Since TTM enables more informed decision-making by giving a complete and accurate picture of a company's financial performance over the past twelve months, these downsides of others make the advantages of TTM more apparent. Despite this situation, the choice of the financial statistic which will help to measure performance will ultimately depend on the particular requirements and objectives of a company.

Ratios Involved in TTM Calculation

Many financial ratios are used in the TTM calculation. The financial performance of a corporation over the preceding twelve months is assessed using these ratios indirectly, and using TTM directly. The following are a few of the crucial ratios used in TTM calculation.

The first ratio which is one of the building components is revenue. For a certain time period, this ratio calculates the sales revenue for a corporation. The revenue ratio for TTM is determined by totaling a company's annual revenue over the previous 12 months. For a detailed overview, the calculation steps of TTM can be checked.

Another base point of the TTM formulation process can be considered as the income statement which is one of the first three basic statements of a company with the balance sheet and the cash flow statement. This statement shows the profitability of an organization over a given time frame by deducting costs, associated expenses, and taxes from the total sales and reaching a net income. The net income ratio for TTM is determined by totaling the company's net income for the previous twelve months, which is a very similar process to the revenue-adding phase.

Alternatively, Earnings Per Share (EPS) calculates a company's per-share profitability. Just like all ratios, the EPS ratio for TTM is computed by summing the earnings per share of a company over the past twelve months. Moreover, basic EPS can be reached through net income minus preferred dividends, and then divided by the average number of shares outstanding. Therefore, it can be assumed that an EPS value will only work for publicly traded companies’ TTM calculation.

With the aid of the EPS ratio, the Price-to-Earnings Ratio (P/E Ratio) gauges how expensive a company's stock is in comparison to its earnings, and can be found by dividing the share price by its EPS. In the instance of TTM, the P/E ratio is determined by dividing the current stock price of a firm by its yearly earnings per share, in other words, it is measured by annualizing the basic formula. Lastly, the Price-to-Sales Ratio (P/S Ratio) compares the stock price of a firm to its sales revenue, and it is especially important for fast-growing businesses by taking revenue growth into account.

As a result, TTM can fulfill its requirements related to measuring financial performance over time by using these ratios in conjunction with information from the previous twelve months. Investors, analysts, and firm management can utilize this data to make well-informed decisions about investment, expansion, and strategy of especially fast-growing companies that are significantly growing at the latest period.

TTM for Startups

TTM is necessary and vital for startups since it offers an accurate and thorough picture of a company's financial performance over time. For new businesses and startups, the initial years can be particularly difficult as they forge a position in the market and strive for profitability. TTM is a practical tool for tracking the development of startups and making knowledgeable financial choices.

TTM offers a more realistic picture of financial success than other metrics like quarterly or annual reports since it does not just cover a fixed fiscal accounting period, which is one of the major advantages for startups. It can be challenging to evaluate a startup's financial health based on a single quarter or year because they may see large variations in income or expenses over brief periods of time. However, thanks to the TTM, these can be averaged out over a longer time frame and a more trustworthy estimate of a company's financial performance can be offered.

In addition to time frame benefits, TTM is helpful for startups when planning for growth and establishing financial estimates. Startups can create more precise performance estimates by looking at trends in revenue, costs, and profitability over the past twelve months. The information that is stemmed from TTM calculation can be used to make plans for investments in new goods or services, to enter new markets, or to look for more capital.

Likewise, since TTM is a crucial tool for businesses to use when showcasing their financial success to lenders or investors who are looking to fund them, it can be advantageous to calculate TTM for the startup fundraising phase. Thus, TTM makes it simpler for startups to explain their accomplishments to potential investors by giving a clear and succinct review of a company's financial performance.

To summarize the reasons why a TTM estimation is essential for a startup, it can be claimed that startups can use TTM to track trends in sales, costs, and profitability so they can make wise financial decisions and prepare for expansion in the future. Also, TTM is a decisive instrument for obtaining funds since it can be used to show financial performance to lenders and investors.


To conclude, the financial statistic known as Trailing Twelve Months (TTM) is essential for helping both well-known long-lasting reputable companies and newly innovated fresh startups to make wise financial decisions. TTM helps businesses track their progress, plan for expansion, and show financial success to potential investors and lenders by offering a thorough and accurate overview of a company's financial performance over the past twelve months.

In the case of startups, since they may experience significant challenges at the beginning of their establishment processes, they may effectively monitor their financial situation and make data-driven decisions with the aid of the valuable finance tool TTM. All things considered, TTM is a crucial financial statistic for firms and can aid in their long-term success by assuring stability, expansion, and profitability. 

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